The Hindu social tradition considers marriage a sacrament. It is recognized as a person’s religious obligation, and the marriage bond is thought to be unbreakable and irrevocable. But as time has passed, this idea has evolved, and it is no longer regarded as being inseparable. According to Indian matrimonial law, a divorce or a judicial separation agreement are the only two ways to dissolve a marriage.
The legal procedure known as “judicial separation” allows a couple to formally separate while still being legally married.
It is a legal process through which a married couple can live separately from each other without obtaining a divorce. The main laws governing matrimonial disputes in India are the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 and the Special Marriage Act of 1954, which govern judicial separation. A court of law may grant judicial separation, typically on the grounds of cruelty, desertion, adultery, or mental illness. The couple is no longer obligated to live together after a judicial separation has been granted, but they are still legally married and cannot be remarried.
The couple is free to discuss and come to an agreement on issues like maintenance, child custody, and property distribution during the process. However, the court may modify these agreements because they are not binding. During the period of this separation, if the couple decides to get back together, they can ask the court to invalidate the separation order. On the other hand, either party may file for divorce if the separation has lasted longer than a year.
The Following Acts Include Different Judicial Separation Provisions:
|The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955:||For Hindus, including people from Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism,|
|The Divorce Act 1869:||For Christians,|
|The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act 1936:||For Parsi,|
|The Special Marriage Act of 1954:||Applies to all.|
Judicial Separation under Hindu Law
Section 10 of the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 deals with judicial separation. According to the Act, judicial separation is a legal procedure that allows a married couple to live apart without filing for divorce. A Hindu wife has the right to file for this separation due to cruelty, adultery, or desertion. Hindu husbands have the right to file for this separation if their wives commit abuse, dishonesty, desert, or change their religion. Either spouse may submit a petition for judicial separation to the district court where they last shared a residence or where the respondent currently resides. The court may order the husband to pay the wife maintenance throughout the legal separation as well as make arrangements for the custody and support of the kids. Once the separation is granted, the couple is no longer required to cohabit with each other, but they are still legally married and cannot remarry. However, either party can apply for a divorce if the separation period has been going on for more than a year. If the couple decides to get back together while the separation is still enforceable, they may ask the court to revoke the separation order.
Grounds for Judicial Separation
The Special Marriage Act of 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 both include several reasons for granting judicial separation.
Legal separation may be warranted if one spouse is abusing the other in any way, whether it is physically or mentally.
If one spouse is discovered to be having extramarital affairs, it may be cause for judicial separation.
Desertion is a legal basis for judicial separation if one spouse has abandoned the other without adequate justification for a continuous period of at least two years.
A spouse’s decision to convert to a different faith and the other spouse’s refusal to do the same can provide grounds for judicial separation.
If one spouse has a mental illness that makes it hard for them to live together, this may be a reason for judicial separation.
Non-Resumption of Cohabitation:
This might be a basis for judicial separation if the spouses have been living apart for a continuous period of one year or longer and have not started cohabiting since.
Difference between Judicial Separation and Divorce?
Both are legal processes that allow a married couple to live separately from each other. But there are some significant variations between the two:
- A divorce causes the marriage to be legally dissolved, whereas a judicial separation permits the couple to live apart while still being legally married.
- Legal separation is granted when there has been cruelty, abandonment, or adultery, whereas divorce is normally granted when there has been a permanent breakdown of the marriage.
Effect on Property:
- Property is divided between the couples in a divorce, but in a legal separation, unless the court determines otherwise, the property remains jointly owned.
- Following a divorce, either party may remarry, but following a judicial separation, the couple remains legally wed and is not permitted to remarry.
- Applications for this separation under Hindu law can be filed under Section 10 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, at any time after marriage. An application for divorce under Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, can be filed only after the expiration of at least one year of marriage.
- Divorce is a two-step process, first for reconciliation and then for divorce. But judicial separation is a one-step process.
Benefits of Judicial Separation
Couples who may be having problems in their marriage but do not want to get a divorce can benefit from judicial separation in a number of ways. The following are a few advantages:
Time To Reflect On And Address Issues:
- It enables a couple to live separately, giving them space to consider their marriage and address any issues that may have contributed to the separation.
- It provides both parties with legal protection, such as maintenance, child custody, and property partition, without dissolving the marriage.
Religious or Cultural Reasons:
- It provides a legal option to live together for couples whose religious or cultural beliefs prohibit divorce.
Benefits to Health:
- Separating from a partner who may be a source of stress or anxiety can be good for health and allow people to concentrate on their physical and mental well-being.
Chance of Reconciliation:
- It can provide couples with a chance to make things up and work on their marriage without the legal process of divorce.
Disadvantages of Judicial Separation
Although judicial separation can help couples who are having problems in their marriage, there are some drawbacks that need to be taken into consideration.
- The couple’s future is unclear as a result of their judicial separation. The couple may not know what to expect for the future of their marriage as a result of the separation, which could be either temporary or permanent.
- It may put a couple under further financial stress because they may have to support two households, pay additional legal bills, and maybe provide support payments.
Impact on Emotions:
- Living separately and sometimes losing support and companionship from a spouse can make judicial separation emotionally challenging for both parties.
Pressures from Culture and Society:
- In some cultures and communities, judicial separation may be criticized, and the couple may be subjected to criticism or pressure from friends and relatives.
Remarrying Is Not An Option:
- Unlike divorce, this separation does not provide either party with the choice to get married again, which could be a drawback for people who want to move on and begin a new relationship.
Before deciding how to proceed with their marriage, it’s necessary for partners to carefully consider the advantages and drawbacks of legal separation.
Procedure to Get Judicial Separation
File a Petition:
- One of the spouses must file a petition in the relevant court to start the process of obtaining a judicial separation. The grounds for the separation and any claims for support, custody, or property partition must be stated in the petition.
Service of Petition:
- Serving the other spouse with the petition gives them the chance to react to the claims and demands made in the petition.
Reconciliation and Mediation:
- In order to help the parties work through their differences and encourage mediation, the court may refer the case to a mediator.
Evidence and Arguments:
- The court will arrange a hearing to take into account the evidence and arguments put forth by both parties if mediation is ineffective and irrelevant.
Decision and Orders:
- If the court determines that the requirements for this separation have been satisfied, it may grant the separation and issue any required orders regarding support, child custody, or property division.
Effects of Judicial Separation:
- The couple is no longer obligated to live together, but they are still legally married once the court grants the judicial separation. Court orders will be used to enforce the terms of the separation, such as the support and custody arrangements.
Maintenance under Judicial Separation
After obtaining a judicial separation, one spouse may be required by law to provide help for the other spouse through maintenance. If the parties have agreed to it in writing or if the court has ordered it as part of the judicial separation order, the parties may be obligated to pay maintenance.
Depending on the appropriate personal law of the spouses, the Hindu Marriage Act, the Special Marriage Act, and the Divorce Act, respectively, govern maintenance following judicial separation.
In general, when deciding the amount of maintenance, the court may take into consideration factors including the parties’ income, earning potential, and financial demands. The duration of the marriage, the parties’ ages and health, and their style of living throughout the marriage are all things the court may take into account.
If a party fails to comply with a maintenance order or agreement, the other party may seek enforcement of the order through the court. The court may impose penalties, such as fines or imprisonment, for non-compliance with maintenance orders.
Can Judicial Separation Be Granted In Place Of Divorce?
Yes, it can be granted in place of divorce in some circumstances. It is a legal process that allows spouses to live separately while still remaining legally married. It can be an option for couples who do not want to get divorced for various reasons, such as religious beliefs or personal preferences.
Landmark Judgments on Judicial Separation
- Smt. Sushila Devi v. Ramesh Chandra, 1971: This case is a landmark judgment in the context of judicial separation under Hindu Law. In this case, the court held that the grounds for judicial separation and divorce are the same under the Hindu Marriage Act, and the court can grant judicial separation if it is satisfied that the grounds for divorce are met but the parties do not wish to obtain a divorce.
- Naveen Kohli v. Neelu Kohli, 2006: This case is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India in the context of this separation and cruelty. The court held that if a party seeking this separation can establish that the other party has subjected them to cruelty, a court can grant this separation even if the cruelty does not amount to a ground for divorce.
- Hitesh Bhatnagar v. Deepa Bhatnagar, 2011: In this case, the Supreme Court of India held that if a party seeking this separation can establish that the other party has withdrawn from the society of the former, a court can grant judicial separation on the ground of desertion, even if the desertion does not meet the requirements for a ground for divorce.
- Ramesh Kumar v. Hemlata, 2020: This is a recent landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India in the context of judicial separation. The court held that a party seeking judicial separation must establish that the marriage has irretrievably broken down and that it is not possible to live together as husband and wife. The court noted that an irretrievable breakdown of marriage is not a ground for divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act, but it can be a ground for judicial separation.
These landmark judgments have established important legal principles and clarified the scope of judicial separation in India.
In India, married couples who want to live apart but do not want a divorce have the option of judicial separation as a legal solution. The parties must live apart according to a court order, which may be obtained for a number of reasons, including abuse, desertion, and adultery. While this separation has certain advantages, including the potential for reconciliation and continuous access to social and financial benefits, it also has significant drawbacks, including the inability to remarry and the necessity of maintaining marital commitments. Instead of divorcing, spouses might take some time to consider the issues and misunderstandings in their marriage and, if possible, work to address them peacefully. Therefore, it gives couples time to work on their relationship.
Read Our Article: Judicial Separation – An Alternative Of Divorce?