Types of NGOs in India: A Brief Outlook

calendar01 Jun, 2021
timeReading Time: 4 Minutes
Types of NGOs in India

NGOs refer to those entities that take a stand to deliver support to underprivileged and needy ones. They are formed group of people who are keen to make a mark by doing social service. In a nutshell, the term NGO, aka Non-Governmental Organization, depicts nothing but a commitment towards the betterment of society. In general, NGOs are engaged with activities that are non-profit and entirely dedicated to the social cause. The undertakings performed by these institutions include but are not limited to Advocacy, Environmental, Social, & human right work. NGOs function to advocate political or social change on a wider scale & play a pivotal role in developing society, promoting citizen involvement, and improving communities. In this write-up, we shall look into different types of NGOs that exist in India. 

Types of NGOs in India 

NGOs types can be understood by their level of operation & Orientation.

NGO types by Orientation:

Charitable Orientation 

Charitable Orientation involves a paternalistic effort with minimal participation by the “beneficiaries”. It covers NGOs with campaigns directed toward fulfilling the needs of the poor- clothing or medicine, food distribution, housing provision, school, transport etc. Such NGOs also take active participation in case of natural catastrophe to support troubled lives. 

Service Orientation 

Service Orientation includes NGOs with campaign dedicated toward the promotion of education, health, family planning. Such activities are broken down into programmes that seek the active participation of people for seamless implementation.  

Participatory Orientation 

Participatory Orientation is symbolized by self-help projects where local individuals are engaged with the deployment of a project by contributing in terms of money, land, tools, labour, material etc. 

In the classical community development project, involvement commences with the need for definition & continues into the planning & deployment phase. Cooperatives often adhere to a participatory orientation.

Read our article:Potential Advantages of running an NGO in India

Empowering Orientation 

Empowering Orientation exists where the goal is to aid needy ones and cultivate an understanding of the social, political & economic[1] factors impacting their lives, and to solidify their awareness of their ability to curb their lives. 

Oftentimes, these groups came across certain issues or problem, at other times participatory individuals plays a vital role in supporting their development. In any case, there is maximum participation of the individual, with NGOs acting as facilitators.

NGO Types by the level of operation:

NGO Types by the level of operation

Community-based Organizations (CBOs)

Community-based Organizations come to light with the effort of people’s own initiatives. These can encompass women’s organizations, sports clubs, educational organizations, and neighbourhood organizations. 

There is a diverse variety of these, and some have the support of several NGOs with a variable scope of operation & others independent of outside help. Some are committed to cultivating awareness among the needy ones or boosting their understanding regarding their right to access basic services, while others are engaged with rendering such services.  

Citywide Organizations 

Citywide organizations include entities such as the Rotary or lion’s Club, coalitions of business, chambers of commerce and industry, associations of community organizations, and ethnic or educational groups. Some are there for other purposes and become involved in supporting needy ones as one of any undertakings, while others are established for serving the specific purpose of supporting the poor. 

National NGOs 

National NGOs include entities such as the Red Cross, professional organizations, YMCAs/YWCAs etc. Some of these possess state & duty branches & provide support to local NGOs. 

International NGOs

International NGOs encompass secular institutions such as Redda B Arana & Save the Children agencies, Care, Oxfam, Ford & Rockefeller Foundations to create awareness among groups religiously. Their undertakings vary from funding local NGOs, projects & agencies to deploying the project themselves. 

So these are the different types of NGOs available in India. Now let’s to the next section that talks about the legality associated with NGO registration.

Legality associated with NGOs registration

NGO is a non-profit organization that works separately without the intervention of governmental authorities. In our country, NGOs can be registered as Trust, Society & Section 8 companies based on the undertaking a person wishes to perform. An NGO is an institution that functions for a social cause. 

The criteria for registering NGOs under the aforesaid heads is also different. If you opt to register the NGO under the section 8 company, then you have to file an online application, viz SPICe+, on the MCA’s portal.

In view of the above, those who wish to register an NGO under trust needs to follow an entirely different process altogether. The procedure below will make you understand how one should approach when it comes to NGO registration under trust. 

  • Select a suitable name as per the Emblems and Names Act, 1950.
  • Draft the trust deed. 
  • Choose Settlers & Trustees Of The Trust
  • Preparing MOA
  • Make payment regarding trust registration fees.
  • Collect the Trust deed copy from the Registrar’s office. 
  • Submit the Trust deed to the local Registrar. 
  • Obtain the registration certificate within seven days. 

Key Takeways

  • NGOs, or non-governmental entities, involved with global development, aid, & philanthropy. 
  • Though these entities promote social welfare, they must run budgets of millions each year. 
  • As such, NGOs need funding from various sources, from private donation & membership dues to government contributions.
  • Despite being an independent entity, many NGOs depends on governmental funding to function seamlessly. 
  • As non-profits, NGOs seek various funding sources, including: 
  • membership dues
  • private donations
  • the sale of goods and services
  • grants from other non-profits
  • government funding for NGOs


So this is the briefing on different types of NGOs that exist in our nation. If you have any doubt in this regard, make sure to post your queries in the comment box. We will strive to respond to them as quickly as possible.  

Read our article:Important Sources and Government Funding For NGOs: A Complete Outlook

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