What Are The Rights Of Shareholders?

calendar27 Mar, 2023
timeReading Time: 6 Minutes
What Are The Rights Of Shareholders?

A person or organization who holds at least one share of a firm is considered to be a shareholder in that company. Founders make up the bulk of a company’s shareholders. But, when the firm grows and brings on more investors, the stock it issues transforms into a kind of money that can be utilized for the purchase of resources and the distribution of those resources among the employees of the company. Shareholders profit when a company does well because share prices grow. In this blog, we will discuss rights of shareholders.

Who is a Shareholder?

A person who is entitled to a share of a company’s earnings is referred to as a shareholder. The shareholders really elect the board of directors to monitor business activities on their behalf. Laws and regulations work to safeguard the interests of shareholders who have invested in a corporation. For shareholders, for instance, voting rights.

Fundamental Rights of Shareholders

Following are the fundamental rights of shareholders:

  1. The state and nation of incorporation determine shareholder rights. Before making any decisions on investments, investors should make contact with the relevant local authorities in order to get information regarding the rules and regulations that are currently in effect in the area. How a company handles its shareholders is governed by these rules. While there are three classes of shareholders, each class has a different level of shareholder engagement and voting rights of shareholders with the firm. The hierarchy of rights of shareholders is established through absolute precedence.
  2. When a firm files for bankruptcy[1], the choice of the company’s shareholders is given the greatest priority. In the event that a corporation declares bankruptcy, the first order of business is to settle all of the firm’s outstanding debts and obligations to its creditors. Bondholders and preferred shareholders follow closely after. This list’s final entry is for common shareholders. Notwithstanding the fact that this is a liquidation issue, shareholder voting rights are in a quite different condition. The next parts of this page go into further information about this topic.
  3. A shareholder may abuse their position of power due to their influence over the firm and favored voting privileges in strategic decisions. To claim that some of the world’s leaders in the field, including those who claim to have a right to a free and opulent, illustrious and illogically. This action may be taken by the board of directors of a company to thwart an effort by a shareholder to purchase the company. When a single person or group acquires a significant portion of the overall share ownership, these schemes become operational. By the implementation of this plan, current shareholders will be able to purchase more shares at a discount, which will result in a reduction in the hostile party’s ownership position.
  4. Shareholder rights have been covered up to this point. But, as was said earlier, the nature of the investment has a role in determining the extent to which the investor may take part in the decision-making process of the firm. Shareholders who own bonds or preferred stocks have rights that are comparable to those of normal shareholders. Nevertheless, shareholders who own common stock have additional rights, such as shareholder voting. Now that we’ve addressed the fundamental rights of ordinary shareholders, let’s move on to the next subject.

Common Rights of Shareholders

Those who own common stocks are called common shareholders. Common stocks are the ones that are exchanged the most often on a stock market, and their share values rise as a company expands. In contrast to notes, common shareholders are given the following rights since their interests are directly tied to the success of the company:

  1. One of the most crucial rights granted to regular shareholders is the ability to cast a ballot. Law requires voting on suggestions that might significantly change the firm (eg. mergers, liquidation). During the company’s Annual General Meetings, shareholders may use their voting rights (to be discussed in detail in later sections). Voting via proxy or email is permitted for shareholders who are unable to attend the meeting in person.
  2. Directors and auditors of the corporation are chosen by the shareholders. The BOD has a great power to monitor the day-to-day operations of the firm, and if they start acting in their own best interests, they have the potential to turn against the shareholders. The BOD’s activities are therefore legally required to defend the interests of shareholders. The same is true for the selection and responsibilities of an organization’s auditors.
  3. Having a stake in the business they do, however, get a percentage of the cash flow while company is booming. Nonetheless, the decision about whether to pay dividends or reinvest earnings in the development of the company and the expansion of stock prices rests with the board of directors. Shareholder voting rights include the election of the board of directors.
  4. Common shareholders may exercise their right to transfer ownership by purchasing or selling shares on the market. This may seem as elementary as it is, but it is really important, particularly throughout the liquidation process. Common shareholders have the ability to immediately liquidate their holdings in business stocks, in contrast to the holders of fixed assets.
  5. Common shareholders have access to the company’s books and records, which include board meeting minutes and bylaws. They now have access to the wider activities of the corporation thanks to this approach.
  6. Shareholder voting rights provide normal shareholders the opportunity to voice their opinions on important documents like the memorandum.

Voting Rights of Shareholders

Shareholders have the right to vote on any company policy, including the election of directors, the start of corporate activities, and the modification of any aspect of business operations. Shareholders’ voting rights are governed by clauses in the corporation’s bylaws.

Both public and private firms are obliged by law to have shareholder meetings where shareholder voting rights are cast. The procedures that need to be followed during these types of meetings will be explained by the legislation of the state in where the firm is registered. A calendar of shareholder meetings is included in each company’s bylaws. Annual shareholder meetings are conducted on the same day each year, barring any significant unforeseen circumstances. The world’s total quantity and current quantity are identically shaped like a quarter.

On the record date previous to the meeting, an organization maintains track of all shareholders.

Shareholders Have The Following Fundamental Voting Rights:

Only when a majority of a corporation’s outstanding share capital is present at an annual meeting can a vote at the meeting be considered legally binding. Depending on the requirements of the firm, this proportion could go up or down.

Shareholders are allowed to designate proxies to attend the Annual Meeting on their behalf in order to vote on their behalf. This is allowed by law. This decision must be documented in writing and does not need the approval of a shareholder. Because of the nature of the connection between a shareholder and a proxy, which is analogous to that of a principal and an agent, both parties are bound by the law in their respective capacities. Proxy appointments, which are allowed by state law, are often made during annual shareholder meetings of publicly traded companies.

Voting difficulties that often arise. It is very difficult to come to an agreement among all of the shareholders of a large publicly traded company because the decisions that are made at shareholder meetings have a far-reaching impact on the lives and livelihoods of a great number of individuals and organizations. Because of this, it is very difficult to come to an agreement among all of the shareholders. In addition to director nominations, the voting issues listed below often attract shareholder voting rights:

Amendments to the Articles of Incorporation or the Bylaws of the Corporation Large-scale corporate asset transfers that significantly deviate from the usual

Voluntary Dissolution of the Company

Minority shareholders do, however, have certain legal rights in addition to those possessed by the majority. Minority shareholders have the legal right to file a lawsuit against the company’s leadership if they consider that they are being unfairly treated by the company’s larger shareholders. Minority shareholders have the following voting rights:

Expectations of management compliance – Minority shareholders have the right to expect corporate officers to operate in the best interests of the firm and in accordance with the conditions outlined in the shareholder agreement. They may, for instance, make it illegal for a director to participate in any activity that might be seen as involving a conflict of interest. Minority shareholders have the legal right to file a lawsuit against the director if this clause is not upheld, claiming that their rights have been violated.

Minority shareholders are not allowed to cash out their interests via dividend payments or stock sales.

To seize power, cast your vote for directors and present shareholder motions. If they can muster a voting majority, minority shareholders may stop or postpone corporate purchases.

We now have a comprehensive understanding of shareholder voting rights and how they function inside organizations. The next section will go more into annual general meetings, where shareholders are obligated to attend and utilize their voting rights to influence important business policy.


If you’re considering starting your own business, either now or in the not-too-distant future, understanding voting shares is crucial. Thought should be made to how shares will be split among the founding team and early investors. Will you permit fair representation? It may be difficult to locate early-stage angel investors who are ready to join in a high-risk business without a voice in the company’s operations if you intend to keep your voting rights.

It is very possible that you will need to organize your investment options in order to grant voting rights to your early founding team as well as investors from angel capital and venture capital. This will need you to organize your investment choices. Yet, the ability to make judgements that are not well received and to steer the organization based on one’s own best judgement is an essential attribute in a leader. So, pursuing personal majority ownership of your firm via the share structure is not something that is done very often. In every organization, voting shares are a valuable asset. The ability of a company’s management to make crucial decisions, such as whether or not to accept a takeover bid or choose a new CEO, is ultimately what determines the course of a company’s future.

Also Read:
Shareholders Right – Know Its Variations And Procedures Of Modification

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