Waste management

What is Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)? – An Overview

calendar23 Mar, 2022
timeReading Time: 3 Minutes
Disposal Facilities

Management of Hazardous waste facilities receives hazardous wastes for storage, disposal, or treatment. These facilities are often directed to as Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs). Scroll down to check more information regarding Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs).

What is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)?

Hazardous Waste TSDFs (Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities) ease the transport, storage, treatment, disposal, collection, and reception of hazardous wastes in an environmentally friendly manner.

In TSDFs, T Stands for Treatment Facilities: These facilities use various processes like oxidation or incineration to alter the composition of hazardous wastes. A part of the treatment operation enables the hazardous waste to be reused & reclaimed in some other processes, while other treatment operations intensely lessen the amount of hazardous waste.

S stands for Storage Facilities: These facilities temporarily hold hazardous wastes until they are disposed of or treated.

D stands for Disposal Facilities: These facilities permanently contain hazardous wastes. The most standard type of disposal facility is a landfill or a junk pile, where hazardous wastes are disposed of in carefully constructed or produced units designed to safeguard surface-water resources & groundwater.

The Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) bring the transporter & generator into the chain of waste management activities. The regulations pertaining to Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) are stricter as compared to which apply to transporters or generators.

The regulations comprise common facility standards and unit-specific design & operating criteria. The general facility standards comprise good housekeeping provisions for any facility that handles hazardous waste. The unit-specific technical necessities are designed to prevent exposure to hazardous waste in the environment.

Following are some facilities that are required in a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs):

  1. Storage Facility;
  2. Disposal Facility;
  3. Transport Facility;
  4. Treatment Facility.

Is it necessary to treat Hazardous Waste?

Hazardous Waste possesses poisonous characteristics that can harm the environment and living beings. That’s why it’s vital to treat hazardous waste before discharging it into the environment. Hazardous Waste can be treated by biological, chemical, physical methods.

What are the criteria required in a TSD Facility?

Following is the criteria required in a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs):

  • Criteria for Transportation of Hazardous Waste:
  1. At the time of transportation, the container shouldn’t break/be defective;
  2. Emergency phone number shall be displayed specifically;
  3. The container in which the hazardous waste is stored shall withstand the integrity for at least 6 months;
  4. The details on the label should include the code number of the waste, hazardous property (e.g., corrosive, toxic, ignitable, and the symbol for the hazardous property (e.g. the red square with flame symbol), the origin place of waste (address, name, telephone, number of generators);
  5. It shall be marked plainly  on the container with information of contents of the waste;
  6. Vessels that have hazardous waste stored shall be marked with the word HAZARDOUS WASTE in a common language like English or Hindi;
  7. The material of packaging shouldn’t react with the contents of the waste.
  • Criteria for Treatment of Hazardous Waste:
  1. Enough machinery shall be installed in the plant to treat hazardous waste;
  2. Chemical, biological, and physical processes shall adopt to treat hazardous waste.
  • Criteria for Storage of Hazardous Waste:
  1. There shall be at least 15 m distance between the storage sheds;
  2. In case of any leakage or spills, cotton shall be used for cleaning instead of water;
  3. There shall be separate columns for flammable, reactive, ignitable, and non-compatible wastes in a storage facility;
  4. The container shall be lined or made with the suitable material, which will not react with, the hazardous wastes proposed to be stored.
  • Criteria for Disposal of Hazardous Waste:
  1. The landfill shall be far from the human settlement;
  2. Disposal of treated Hazardous Waste shall be done in a landfill;
  3. The landfill shall be far away from human settlement.

Vital Documents Required for Establishing TSD Facility

  1. GST Registration Certificate;
  2. Latest Electricity Bill, Water Bill;
  3. Topo map;
  4. Details of processes;
  5. Details of Pollution Control Equipment;
  6. Authorised Signatory of PAN card and Aadhar Card;
  7. Company Incorporation Certificate (in case of Private Limited or Public Limited);
  8. Layout Plant;
  9. MOA (Memorandum of Association) for private limited or public limited;
  10. Property Paper or Rent Agreement.

Following are all the licenses required to establish a TSD Facility:

  1. Hazardous Waste Authorisation;
  2. General Standards for Discharge of Environment Pollutants;
  3. Environment Clearance[1] from State or Central Government;
  4. Norms for DG set, Effluent Discharge norms, Noise Pollution, ground or surface water norms & Ambient Air Quality norms;
  5. Gaseous Emission Norms for Hazardous Waste Incinerators.


Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) is the storage, treatment, collection, and disposal of hazardous waste in an environment-friendly manner. The TSDF welcomes the generator & transporter in waste management activities. The regulations that apply to Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) are more severe than those that apply to transporters or generators.

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