As per the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for utilization of ETP Sludge generated from the Pulp and Paper Industry, the sludge should be analyzed to determine its chemical and physical properties and any potential contaminants. Based on this analysis, the sludge can be classified into different categories for further processing. The next step involves the treatment of the sludge to remove any remaining contaminants or impurities. This can be done through various physical, chemical, or biological methods. The treated sludge can then be tested to ensure it meets the necessary quality standards for its intended use. Once the sludge has been treated and tested, it can be utilized in various applications.
Standard Operating Procedure for Utilization of ETP Sludge Generated from the Pulp and Paper Industry
This SoP is applicable only for the utilization of ETP Sludge generated from primary and secondary clarifier units of the Effluent Treatment Plant as a supplementary energy resource in AFBC/PFBC/CFBC boiler.
- The dewatered primary and secondary sludge (with a moisture content of no more than 40%) generated from the unit’s effluent treatment plant will be collected and stored in pits within the premises. These pits will be covered to prevent rainwater from entering and will have a proper slope and seepage collection pit to collect any seepage or floor washings. The collected seepage and floor washings will be sent to the effluent treatment plant for further treatment.
- Primary and secondary sludge utilization shall not exceed 20% of the coal consumed in the AFBC boiler.
- ETP sludge will be transferred from the storage shed to the storage hopper/mixing unit using a mechanical conveyor system.
- A uniform mixture of coal and ETP sludge in the ratio of 20:80 (ETP sludge, coal) will be achieved using appropriate mechanized mixing units.
- A mechanized system will transfer the uniform mixture to the AFBC/PFBC/CFBC boiler.
- The AFBC boiler must maintain a temperature of no less than 850°C.
- The utilization of ETP sludge will not be carried out during unstable/breakdown conditions in the boiler.
- The flue gases will be treated in an electrostatic precipitator or bag dust collectors and passed through a heat economizer before being released through a stack of the prescribed height as per SPCB regulations.
- All personnel involved in plant operations must wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as masks, safety gloves, goggles, and safety shoes suitable for power plant operations.
- The unit must obtain authorization from the concerned State Pollution Control Board under the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, for the generation, storage, and utilization of ETP sludge.
- The unit must submit quarterly and annual reports on ETP sludge generated, consumed, quantity utilized, or resources conserved, along with details on the type and quantity of resources conserved to the concerned SPCB. Additionally, the unit must submit quarterly analysis reports of fly ash generated during the utilization of ETP sludge for the initial one year.
- The unit must maintain a logbook with information on the source, quantity, quality, and date-wise utilization of ETP sludge and analysis report of emission monitoring and effluent discharged.
- The unit must maintain records of hazardous waste utilized and disposed of as per Form 3 and file annual returns in Form 4 as per Rule 20 (1) and (2) of the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, to SPCB.
- The unit will be liable to implement immediate response measures, environmental site assessment, and remediation of contaminated soil/groundwater/sediment, etc., as per the “Guidelines on Implementing Liabilities for Environmental Damages due to Handling & Disposal of Hazardous Wastes and Penalty” published by CPCB in case of environmental damages arising due to improper handling of hazardous wastes, including accidental spillage during generation, storage, processing, transportation, and disposal.
- During the utilization and handling of hazardous waste, the unit must comply with the requirements following the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, as amended, wherever applicable.
Requirements and compliances
The Requirements and compliances as per the SOP of the Pulp and Paper Industry are as follows.
- Sludge collection and storage pit design and construction specifications
- Limit of primary and secondary sludge utilization in the AFBC boiler to 20% of coal consumed
- ETP sludge transfer mechanism specifications
- Mechanized mixing unit specifications for achieving a uniform mixture of coal and ETP sludge in the ratio of 20:80 (ETP, sludge, coal)
- Mechanized system specifications for transferring the uniform mixture to AFBC/PFBC/CFBC boiler
- AFBC boiler temperature maintenance specifications (minimum of 850°C)
- Conditions for stable/breakdown in the boiler during ETP sludge utilization
- Flue gas treatment specifications through electrostatic precipitator/bag dust collectors and heat economizer before releasing through a stack
- Personal protective equipment specifications for personnel involved in plant operations
- Authorization requirements from the concerned State Pollution Control Board for the generation, storage, and utilization of ETP sludge
- Requirements for quarterly and annual reporting on ETP sludge generated, consumed, quantity utilized, or resources conserved, including details on the type and quantity of resources conserved to the concerned SPCB
- Logbook specifications for maintaining information on the source, quantity, quality, date-wise utilization of ETP sludge, and analysis report of emission monitoring and effluent discharged
- Record maintenance specifications of hazardous waste utilized and disposed of as per Form 3 and annual returns filing in Form 4 as per Rule 20 (1) and (2) of the Hazardous and Other Wastes Rules, 2016, to SPCB
- Immediate response measures, environmental site assessment, and remediation of contaminated soil/groundwater/sediment, etc. guidelines in case of environmental damages arising due to improper handling of hazardous wastes, including accidental spillage during generation, storage, processing, transportation, and disposal
- Requirements for compliance with the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, as amended, during the utilization and handling of hazardous waste.
Documents requirement for Utilization of ETP Sludge
Documents required for the Utilization of ETP Sludge generated from the Pulp and Paper Industry are as follows:
- Applicable laws: Central Pollution Control Board, State Pollution Control Board, Water Act 1974, Air Act 1981, and Hazardous Wastes (Management Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules 2008.
- To obtain Hazardous Waste Management Authorization, the following documents must be submitted:
- Consent to Establish was obtained from the State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) under the Air and Water Acts.
- Certificate of registration from the District Industries Centre or another authorized government agency.
- Proof of installed capacity of plants and machinery from the District Industries Centre or another authorized government agency.
- Certificate of effluent compliance, waste disposal, emission standards and treatment from the SPCB or the respective Zonal Office of CPCB (for license renewal).
Additional documents required for Hazardous Waste Management Authorisation:
- For Public Limited Companies and Private Limited Companies, identification and address proof of directors, proof of ownership or lease/rent agreement of the premise, NOC certificate from the site owner, telephone bill or utility bill, MCD license, waste collection agreement, memorandum of association of the company, certificate of incorporation, PAN card of the company, and board declaration for authorized signatory.
- For Proprietorship or Partnership Firms: PAN and Aadhar cards of the Proprietor/partner, rent/lease/ownership of the office location, utility bill, waste collection agreement, and MCD license.
Required Permits and Approvals
The Permits and Approvals required for the Utilization of ETP Sludge generated from the Pulp & Paper Industry are as follows:
- Authorization for utilization of hazardous waste under the Hazardous and Other Wastes Rules, 2016.
- Consent to Establish and Operate from the State Pollution Control Board.
- No-Objection Certificate (NOC) from the concerned district administration for using ETP sludge.
- Approval from the Central Pollution Control Board or the State Pollution Control Board for using ETP sludge as a fuel or raw material.
- Approval from the local authorities for handling and transportation of ETP sludge.
- Compliance with the provisions of the Air (Act, 1981 and the Water Act, 1974.
- Compliance with the guidelines issued by the CPCB or the SPCB for using ETP sludge.
Developing a standard operating procedure (SOP) for using ETP sludge generated from the pulp and paper industry is essential to ensure proper waste management and compliance with environmental regulations. The SOP should address the entire process from generation, storage, transportation, and sludge utilisation to minimize environmental and public health impacts. However, developing an effective SOP can take time and effort, considering the complexity of regulations, potential risks associated with waste management, and the need to adopt innovative technologies. Hence, the advice of experts with a thorough understanding of the relevant regulations, best practices, and innovative solutions is necessary to develop an effective SOP that ensures regulatory compliance, minimizes environmental impact, and maximizes the economic value of the waste.