When someone is arrested, the immediate next step is to seek regular bail by filing a regular bail application. One may have come across various news reports or articles on bail being denied or granted. Bail is a notion that originated in England. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights later recognized the need and relevance of bail as a fundamental right. Many times, we have seen people detained on bogus accusations due to political or other forms of influence. Bail is used to preserve an arrested individual’s human rights, whether or not the person is an offender. Following the 41st Law Commission’s report, the Parliament inserted the provision for bail into the Criminal Procedure Code of 1973.
What is Bail?
The word “bail” refers to the provisional release of a person who has been charged with a crime. Bail is the legal release of an accused person who has been charged with a particular crime, subject to certain requirements and the need that he remain under the Court’s authority. When someone is granted bail, they are freed from detention when they are suspected of committing any offence that carries a fine or another penalty in return for a financial commitment to appear in Court when the time comes. The surety is the one who pays the payment.
What do you mean by a Regular Bail?
Regular bail is the legal process by which a judge can order the release of a person who is being held on suspicion of committing a crime, usually with the strict condition that they do not flee or obstruct the administration of justice in any other way. A “personal bond” may need to be executed to satisfy these criteria, or a court may order the issuance of a bond with sureties.
A person who is being held on suspicion of committing an offence for which bail is required has the right to be freed under the guidelines set out in Section 436 CrPC. On the other hand, when someone is arrested for a crime for which they are not eligible for bail, bail is decided by the Court, and the defendant is only released when there is sufficient evidence to support it.
Bail petitions filed in magistrates’ courts are subject to Section 437, whereas bail applications filed in session or high court courts are subject to Section 439. According to Section 437 of the CrPC, the granting or refusing of ordinary bail is a function of judicial discretion that is primarily controlled by standards and a few clear-cut laws.
Regular Bail in case of Bailable Offences
While understanding regular bail in case of bailable offences, it is important to understand that the bail process for offences that are subject to bail is covered by Section 436 of the CrPC. Bail for the accused person is a matter of right. The Police Officer is required by law to release an individual on bail upon request from the Court. It also establishes the longest time that the police may hold a prisoner who is awaiting trial. It says that the accused will be released by the Court on his bail, with or without sureties, if, during an investigation, he has been held for a period of time that extends up to fifty per cent of the maximum sentence of imprisonment for the specified offence.
Regular Bail for Non-Bailable Offences
A regular bail for non-bailable offences is granted only in a few cases. The authority of the trial court and the magistrate, to whom police are required to present the defendant, to either approve or reject bail, is covered in Section 437. However, for non-bailable offences, bail may be granted for the following reasons:
- If the person who is accused is a woman,
- If the accused is under 16 years old,
- If the accused is ill or infirm.
- Only special reasons are allowed for the granting of bail to habitual offenders.
Under Section 437 (1), the accused can only be released by a police official, the officer-in-charge. The magistrate will deny the bail request at the hearing if:
The following circumstances must be met:
- The individual is guilty of a crime that carries a sentence of death,
- A life sentence in prison, or imprisonment for seven years or longer,
- The individual has been found guilty of the same crime twice or more in the past; abatement of, or conspiracy to commit, any serious offence
When an accused person is released on bail, they are subject to certain restrictions. These restrictions include the following:
- The accused person must attend all of the bond’s terms;
- The accused person must not commit any crimes similar to the ones for which he is currently charged or suspected, and
- The accused person must not dissuade or discourage anyone who is knowledgeable about the case’s facts from testifying in Court or from tampering with any evidence.
What Information Does Regular Bail Contain?
The below-mentioned information is included in the regular bail application:
- The provisions of the Civil Procedure Code
- Party details
- The details of the Court, where the regular bail application is to be flied
- Details of place of detention and time of the accused
- The number of the FIR
- The details of the police station
- Grounds on which the bail is to be granted
- Surety of accused
- Signature of the applicant
Documents needed for Regular Bail Application
Some significant documents are to be attached to the regular bail application. The list of documents needed for regular bail application is:
- The criminal complaint or warrant of arrest copy
- If there is any criminal history, then a copy of those documents
- Booking sheet copy of the defendant (Copy)
- The schedule of the bail of the defendant (Copy)
- Financial statement of the defendant (Copy)
- Identity proof of the defendant (Passport/Voter ID/Driving License) (Copy)
- Other additional documents are needed for regular bail applications.
The documents needed for regular bail applications can vary from case to case and as per the requirements of the authorities.
Process of Filing Regular Bail Application
Before understanding the process of filing a regular bail application, it must be noted that a regular bail application is a formal court filing used to ask for a defendant to be released from custody prior to trial. A typical bail application should be meticulously and precisely prepared to guarantee that the Court will grant it.
Step 1: Compile the Required Data
Getting all the information required is the first step in creating a standard bail application. Name, residence, birthdate, and any other pertinent data pertaining to the defendant are included in this. A thorough explanation of the allegations against the defendant and any relevant mitigating circumstances should also be submitted to the Court by the petitioner.
Step 2: Write a draft of the application
After gathering the required data, the candidate should start preparing the application. A succinct and unambiguous summary of the case’s facts and a thorough justification for the defendant’s release on bond should be included in the application. Any supporting documentation, such as financial records or character references, should be included by the applicant.
Step 3: Send in the Application
The application must be prepared and then filed to the Court. All required paperwork, including the defendant’s criminal history and any other pertinent information, should be included in the application. A cover letter outlining the applicant’s case for the defendant’s release on bond should also be sent.
Step 4: Show up to the hearing
After applying, the candidate needs to show up for the hearing. The applicant must make their case for the defendant’s release at the hearing. After reviewing the material, the Court will decide whether or not to issue bail.
An applicant may make sure their standard bail application is complete and precisely completed by following these procedures. This will make it more likely that the Court will accept the application and free the accused person.
Circumstances where Regular Bail Can be Granted
The Court may take into account any or all of the following circumstances when deciding whether to grant the accused regular bail:
- There is no need to question the accused in custody anymore.
- There is little likelihood that the accused will obstruct the police inquiry.
- The accused cannot possibly tamper with the evidence.
- The accusations are not extremely severe in kind or degree.
- The accused has not impacted any recovery or will impact any recovery.
- The trial’s completion will take a while.
- There is little chance that the accused will flee the nation.
- There isn’t a prima facie case established against the accused.
- There isn’t a current case against the defendant.
- Keeping the accused in jail would not serve any meaningful purpose.
Rejection of Regular Bail Application
A regular bail application can be rejected if any of the below-mentioned circumstances are found:
- If there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that the petitioner has been guilty of a crime punishable with death or imprisonment for life.
- In the event that the applicant has a prior conviction for an offence that carries a death, life, or seven-year maximum sentence and the offence is cognizable,
- The applicant has served two or more prior convictions for a cognizable offence that carried a minimum sentence of seven years in prison or a maximum of three years;
- There are enough reasons to look into his culpability in further detail;
- There is a plausible possibility that the applicant may flee the nation;
- The petitioner has the power to intimidate, destroy, or sway witnesses in his favour.
An essential component of the Indian judicial system, bail plays a crucial role in preserving social justice and safeguarding individual rights. When setting bail for a felony that is not entitled to bail, a court may take into account several factors. The accused is required to post bail and show up in Court on the designated day and hour. A judge may decide to cancel bail in the case of a no-show. The Court must take the defendant’s history, occupation, income, and education into account when setting bail. This is a vital part of the criminal justice system since it ensures that a person is not jailed without trial for a lengthy period of time.
Frequently Asked Questions
Regular bail may be given for a variety of reasons, including the lack of a prima facie case, the need for no recovery, the end of future detention, and more.
During the bail hearing, the accused may only be released under Section 437(1) by the supervising police officer.
Attending Court, abstaining from similar offences, and not tampering with witnesses or evidence are among the restrictions.
The report of the 41st Law Commission, which acknowledged the necessity to protect human rights, led to the inclusion of bail provisions in the CrPC.
Section 436 guarantees bail as a matter of right for offences that are subject to it and police are required to release the accused within specified time periods upon request.
By granting the accused a temporary release under strict terms, bail is essential for upholding social justice, safeguarding individual rights, and preventing unfair incarceration.
Section 437 governs bail for non-bailable offences, taking into account several variables, including age, gender, health, and prior offences. Adopting special justifications is necessary for repeat offenders.
Bail serves as a weapon to defend human rights by guaranteeing that people are not wrongfully imprisoned, especially in cases when political influence or false accusations are used.
It is important to follow the terms of bail since the Court has the authority to revoke it if the accused does not show up in Court after being granted release.
Anticipatory bail, interim bail, and regular bail are the three categories of bail that have different functions during court cases.
Regular bail applications contain information on the parties involved, the court name, the CrPC section, the FIR number, and the reasons for granting release.
Financial information, the defendant’s criminal history, the arrest warrant, and the criminal complaint are required for a standard bail application.
The procedure includes obtaining the required data, creating an application that is thorough, submitting it to the Court together with any supporting documentation, and showing up for the bail hearing.
Regular bail applications aim to strike a balance between police rights and individual freedom by guaranteeing the accused’s attendance at hearings and preventing obstruction of investigations.
If the accused has a criminal record, is likely to flee, might influence witnesses, or constitutes a threat to the investigation, their usual bail request may be denied.