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Overview on Waste to energy Plant set up in India

Industrialization, urbanization has changed the pattern of life, it has strengthen the economy of the country, and with the arrival of industrialization it give rise to the quantities of waste generation and increased the threat to the environment. The technologies have been evolved and developed that not only help in generating substantial quantity of decentralized energy but also reduce the quantity of waste for its safe disposal. The Ministry is promoting all available technology options for establishing projects to recover energy in the form of Biogas/CNG/Electricity from agricultural, industrial, and urban wastes of renewable nature, such as municipal solid wastes, vegetable and other market wastes, slaughter house waste, agricultural residues, and industrial/STP wastes and effluents, in the form of Biogas/Bio CNG/Electricity.

What are the types of Waste?

Organic waste, e-waste, hazardous waste, inert garbage, and other types of waste are formed as a result of our daily or industrial operations. Organic waste is defined as waste that degrades or is broken down over time by microorganisms. Organic wastes are all carbon-based substances, even though they are diverse in composition and degrade at various rates. Organic waste accounts for a major fraction of total waste creation in the industrial, urban, and agricultural sectors, and hence can be used to generate energy. Non-biodegradable organic waste and biodegradable organic waste are two types of organic waste.

Non-biodegradable organic waste and biodegradable organic waste are two types of organic waste:

Biodegradable waste is made up of organic materials that can be used as food by naturally existing microbes in a suitable amount of time. Agro residue, food processing rejects, municipal solid waste (food waste, leaves from garden waste, paper, cloths/ rags, etc.), waste from poultry farms, cattle farm slaughterhouses, dairy, sugar, distillery, paper, oil extraction plant, starch processing, and leather industries are among the biodegradable organics. Organic materials that are non-biodegradable or have a very slow rate of breakdown are known as non-biodegradable organic materials. Woody plants, cardboard, cartons, containers, wrappings, pouches, abandoned clothing, wooden furniture, agricultural dry waste, bagasse, rice husk, and other materials fall into this category.


Biomethanation- Biomethanation is the anaerobic digestion of organic matter to produce biogas. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a non-oxygenated bacterial fermentation process that produces biogas mostly composed of methane (60 percent), carbon dioxide (40 percent), and other gases. Biomethanation has two advantages. It produces biogas and manure as a byproduct.

Incineration- Incineration is the complete combustion of trash (Municipal Solid Waste or Refuse produced fuel) with heat recovery to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity through steam turbines.

Gasification- Gasification is a decomposition process that uses high temperatures (500-1800o C) and a small amount of oxygen to produce synthetic gas (a combination of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). The gasifier produces Syngas from biomass, agro-residues, segregated MSW, and RDF pellets. This gas can also be used for heating and power generation.

Pyrolysis- Pyrolysis is a process that employs heat to break down combustible materials in the absence of oxygen, resulting in a mixture of flammable gases, liquids, and solid left overs (mainly methane, complex hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide). The pyrolysis process yields the following results: a gas mixture; (ii) a liquid (bio-oil/tar); and (iii) a solid residue (carbon black). The gas produced by either of these processes can either be utilised to heat boilers or cleaned up and used in combustion turbine generators. The goal of waste pyrolysis is to reduce emissions while increasing gain.

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Licenses and NOC needed to obtain to set up waste to energy plant

Following are the Licenses and NOC needed to obtain to set up waste to energy plant:

  1. Fire NOC
  2. Factory License
  3. NOC from SPCB
  4. Solid waste municipal License

Fire NOC- In order to prevent from inevitable fire accidents, the fire department issued the Fire NOC. The said NOC issued after the comprehensive verification and examination of the premises. The process should be meet all the required fire safety and guidelines conferred by the bureau of India standards. After the inspection of the premises the authority concerned able to find the standards same used as per the expectation, the authority issued a NOC for both commercial and residential buildings of the applicant. The NOC shall be issued by the respective state “Fire service department”.

What are the Documents required to obtain Fire NOC?

To obtain the NOC from the Fire Department. The application must be accompanies by the give bellow Documents-

  • Id and address proof of the applicant
  • Photo of the premises
  • Completion certificate of the electrical wiring
  • Building layout plan which shall include a site plan, layout plan
  • A certification by the architect

Factory License- For the protection of workers the owner should provide a healthy environment, therefore, the government introduced the factory act, 1948. So as per the act every factory owner should register their premises with the consent and approval of local authorities of the concern state. The factory license is a Document on which approval is given by the authorities to commence manufacturing activities. It is the responsibility of the factories and boiler department to keep on checking on health, safety and welfare of the workers. Additional, the factory registered under the factories act, 1948 and shall obtain the building plan.

What are the Documents needed to obtain factory license

  • Copy of the factory building plan
  • Id and address proof of the applicant
  • Detailed list of the directors
  • MOA & AOA and board resolution
  • Bank account details
  • Form-1
  • Payment receipts
  • Land deeds
  • Consent of the authorities
  • Particular of equipment
  • Hazardous and Non-hazardous waste
  • Tax receipt

NOC from SPCB- Whosoever wants to set up a waste to energy plant in India or any project related to it. Consent to operate should be needed from the concerned state pollution control board (SPCB). If anyone wants to operate waste to energy plant in India, he needs to comply with the rules enumerated under section 21 of of air prevention and pollution act, 1981.

There are two kinds of NOC required by the clearance board:

  1. Consent to establish
  2. Consent to operate

Consent to establish

Consent to establish is a type of Consent required by the concerned Authority to set up or run any manufacturing industry. This is the primary Authority to establish any air and water or noise pollution industry.

Consent to Operate

Consent to operate is needed to ensure that the industry maintains or maintains the standards related to operations all the industries required to form this type of Consent to operate.

What are the Documents required to obtain NOC from SPCB

  • The industry or manufacturer's layout plan must incorporate effluent sewage treatment and emissions sources in addition to the layout design.
  • It's also required to supply details about the DG set, such as its capacity.
  • A sheet is used to display information regarding the process flow.
  • A report on solid waste, wastewater, hazardous wastes, and fuel gases.
  • Information about the water pollution control board's and the air pollution control board's instruments.
  • A report on the air effluents' quality.
  • Consent has a cost attached to it. A demand draft to the competent pollution control authority is required.
  • Water Calculations Budgeting
  • A diagrammatic representation of the Monitoring Facility is provided.

Solid waste Municipal License- Solid waste municipal license issued by the State pollution control board (SPCB). This license needed to pick the solid waste materials generated during the manufacturing process. SPCB shall grant this license to the owner of premises who has set up the plant.

What are the Documents required to obtain Solid waste Municipal License?

  • Aadhar card of the applicant
  • Pan card of the applicant
  • NOC from SPCB

How Corpbiz can assist you?

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